Kitchen Gardening by Mohsin Riaz

Twitter @mohsenwrites

A kitchen garden is where herbs and vegetables are grown around the house for household use. Since early times a small plot near to the house has been used for growing a variety of vegetables according to the season.

Growing pesticide free vegetables in garden is now becoming a hobby for people. Kitchen gardening is affordable and doesn’t need lot of space. You can even use your balconies or window sills for kitchen gardening. Local varieties such as radish, broad leaf mustard, chilli, beans, pumpkins, tomatoes etc. are can be grown.

Need of Kitchen Garden –

For people to stay healthy it’s very important to have a healthy diet. A healthy diet means a balanced mix of rice, bread, pulses, vegetables, herbs, fruit etc. For energy and protection against disease, vegetables play an essential role. Growing of vegetables without the use of chemical inputs, it is beneficial for health of the body.

Grow healthy, fresh vegetables yourself.Cultivation in a small area facilitates the methods of controlling pests and diseases through the removal of affected parts and non-use of chemicals.This will only facilitate successful production of our own requirement of vegetables.To save the cost of buying vegetables and herbs.Waste resources such as sweepings, kitchen scraps and dirty water can be recycled onto the garden.Vegetables harvested from home garden taste better than those purchased from market.Gardening gives dual benefits of food and income generation.Gardens provide fodder for household animals and supplies for other household needs (handicrafts, fuel wood, furniture, baskets, etc.)

Site selection- There will be limited choice for the selection of sites for kitchen gardens and the final choice is usually the backyard of the house. The area where sunlight come from, can be easily accessed from the house. This is convenient as the members of the family can give a constant care to the vegetables during leisure .When these are kept in mind, site selection can be done and making garden is easier.Protection- The kitchen garden area needs protection .It should not be possible for livestock to enter the area. A permanent fence should be made. Thorny plants can be cut and used to make a fence, but the best method is to plant a living fence to protect the garden.Land preparation- Getting the right mix of soil is an important step as the nutrients in the soil determine how healthy the plants would grow. Use cow dung to keep all organic. Sweeping pit, liquid manure, mulching, Green manure must be used for fertility of the soil. Firstly a through spade digging is made to a depth of 30-40 cm.

Stones, bushes and perennial weeds are removed.100 kg of well decomposed farmyard manure or vermicompost is applied and mixed with the soil.Ridges and furrows are formed at a spacing of 45 cm or 60 cm as per the requirement.Flat beds can also be formed instead of ridges and furrows.

Sowing and planting- The main objective of a kitchen garden is the maximum output and a continuous supply of vegetables throughout the year. Direct sown crops like bhendi, cluster beans and cowpea can be sown on one side of the ridges . Amaranthus (meant for whole plant pull out and clipping) can be sown by broadcasting in the plots. Small onion, mint and coriander can be planted/sown along the bunds of plots.

Seeds of transplanted crops like tomato, brinjal and chilli can be sown in nursery beds or pots one month in advance After sowing and covering with top soil and then dusting with 250 grams neem cake so as to save the seeds from ants.

The perennial plants should be located on one side of the garden, usually on the rear end of the garden so that they may not shade other crops, compete for nutrition with the other vegetable crops.If seeds and seedlings are planted too wide apart, much of the space in between goes to waste, where weeds will grow . Weeds use precious water and compost, and cause extra work to keep clear.

It is important to provide enough moisture for the kitchen garden. To make sure your plants get optimum water, check the moisture of the soil by pressing it with your fingers and then water the plant as per requirement. if there is no irrigation for main food crops, it is likely that there is also not enough water to irrigate the kitchen garden. But if the water conservation methods that is saving rain water are used,

then more water is conserved and so less is needed. Collecting and using waste water from the kitchen can be enough to water the garden. In the hot season, irrigate in the evening or at night, and not in the daytime.

Check your plants regularly and prevent insects from breeding You can rotate crops to grow different crops one after the other. Top up with fertiliser once a month. Spray neem oil to keep mosquitos and other insects away. Take part in regular weeding to keep your plants’ growth stable. Aerate soil by loosening the top layer. Take part in regular weeding to keep your plants’ growth stable. Practice organic means to grow crops which will be good for health.

Be Organic Stay Healthy……!!!!!

Twitter @mohsenwrites

کسانوں کا معاشی قتل تحریر-محسن ریاض

کسانوں کا معاشی قتل تحریر-محسن ریاض
Twitter @mohsenwrites

کسی بھی ملک کی ترقی میں زراعت ریڑھ کی ہڈی کا کردار ادا کرتی ہے اور پاکستان کو ایک زرعی ملک کی حثیئت سے جانا جاتا ہے اس وقت پاکستان کی چالیس فیصد لیبر زراعت کے شعبے میں اور باقی دوسرے تمام شعبوں سے منسلک ہے کسی ملک کی ترقی کا ماپنے کے لیے جی ڈی پی کو دیکھا جاتا ہے یعنی یہ ملک معاشی لحاظ سے کتنی ترقی کر رہا ہے اس وقت پاکستان کی جی ڈی پی میں بیس فیصد حصہ زراعت کا ہے یعنی یہ ایک ایسا شعبہ ہے جو ملک کی ترقی میں ایک اہم کردار ادا کر رہا ہے مگر اس شعبے کو ہر دور حکومت میں نظر انداز کیا گیا ہے جس کی وجہ سے کسان بدحال سے بدحال ہوتا گیا اور سرمایہ دارکا سرمایہ زیادہ سے زیادہ ہوتا گیا -پاکستان میں جو اہم فصلیں کاشت کی جاتی ہیں ان میں کپاس، گندم ، چاول اور مکئی شامل ہیں کپاس کے لیے جنوبی پنجاب کی آب وہوا موزوں ترین تھی اور یہاں سے بہت زیادہ مقدار میں کاٹن پیدا کی جاتی تھی مگر گزشتہ ادوار کی حکومتوں کی نااہلی کی وجہ سے شوگر ملوں کو اس علاقے میں شفٹ کر دیا گیا اور جب کسانوں نے دیکھا کہ انہیں اس فصل میں مناسب مصاوضہ مل رہا ہے تو انہوں نے گنے کی فصل لگانا شروع کر دی اور اس طرح یہاں سے ایک لحاظ سے کپاس کی فصل کو تقریباً ترک کر دیا گیا حالانکہ ارباب اختیار کو چاہیے تھا کہ اس علاقے کو کاٹن زون ڈکلئیر کرتے اور شوگر ملوں کو یہاں منتقل ہونے سے روکتے مگر شائد ان کی ملی بھگت شامل تھی اس کے بعد گندم کی فصل کا ذکر کرتے ہیں جس میں پاکستان کچھ عرصہ پہلے تکا خودکفیل تھا مگر گزشتہ سال سے ناقص انتظامات کی وجہ سے اس کا بحران پیدا ہو رہا ہے اس کی ایک وجہ تو نااہلی اور بد انتظامی ہے جس کی وجہ سے بحران پیدا ہوا اور دوسری اہم وجہ مناسب معاوضہ نہ ملنا اور فصل پر زیادہ اخراجات ہونا ہے اسی لیے کسان دلبرداشتہ ہو کر اپنی زمینیں بیچ رہے ہیں جس کی وجہ سے کاشتکاری کے لیے زمین کی کمی ہو رہی ہے اور اس پر ہاوسنگ سوسائٹیز بنائی جا رہی ہیں اس سے ملک میں کسی بھی فصل کی اوسط کم ہو رہی ہے اور ہمیں اپنی ملکی ضروریات پوری کرنے کے لیے درآمدات میں اضافہ کرنا پڑ رہا ہے جس سے ملکی ترقی کی رفتار سست ہے اس کے بعد مکئی کی فصل کی جانب آتے ہیں سارا سال اس کی قیمت پندرہ سو روپے کے قریب ہوتی ہے مگر جب کسانوں سے خریدنے کا اقت آتا ہے تو اس کو قیمت گر کر سات سو کے قریب آ جاتی ہے کیونکہ کسان کے پاس تو اتنا سرمایہ نہیں ہوتا اس نے یہ فصل بیچ کر اگلی فصل کاشت کرنی ہوتی ہے لہذا سارا منافع سرمایہ دار لے جاتے ہیں – اس کے بعد چاول کی فصل کی جانب آتے جو کہ ملکی زراعت میں ایک کلیدی کردار ادا کر رہی ہے کیونکہ اس کو ملکی ضروریات پورا کرنے کے بعد بیرون ملک برآمد کیا جاتا ہے مگر اس میں بھی کسان کو خون پسینے کی کمائی کی صورت میں چند ٹکے ہی میسر آتے ہیں اس فصل کو پانی کی بہت زیادہ ضرورت ہوتی ہی اور ڈیزل کو موجودہ قیمت ۱۲۰ روپے کے قریب ہے جس کی وجہ سے کسان کی کمائی کا ایک بڑا حصہ اس میں خرچ ہو جاتا ہے اس کے بعد کھادوں کا نمبر آتا ہے موجودہ حکومت نے کسانوں کے لیے سبسڈی کا آغاز کیا ہے مگر اس کا طریقہ کا بہت پیچیدہ ہے جس کے لیے کارڈ کا اجرا کروانا پڑتا ہے مگر اکثر لوگ اس سے ناواقف ہیں اور وہ اس آفر سے محروم ہیں اس کے علاوہ کھاد کی موجودہ قیمت چھ ہزار تک پہنچ چکی ہے جس کی وجہ سے اس دور حکومت میں تو کسانوں کی خوشحالی کا کوئی امکان نہیں-

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تمباکو نوشی تحریر – محسن ریاض

تمباکو نوشی   تحریر – محسن ریاض
Twitter @mohsenwrites

تمباکو نوشی کی روایت صدیوں سے چلی آ رہی ہے -قدیم دور میں اس کو حقے کی شکل میں یا پھر تمباکو کو پتوں میں لپیٹ کر بیڑی کی شکل میں استعمال کیا جاتا تھا آہستہ آہستہ اس میں جدت آتی گئی اور موجودہ شکل سگریٹ اورای سگریٹ کی شکل میں موجود ہیں اس ای سگریٹ نوجوانوں میں بے حد مقبول ہو رہا ہے جبکہ برطانیہ اور امریکہ میں اس پر پابندی لگانے کے حوالے سے قوانین بنائے جا رہے ہیں جبکہ برطانیہ میں اس حوالے سے باقاعدہ قانون موجود ہے کہ نکوٹین کی مقدار کتنی رکھنی چاہیے-دنیا میں تمباکو کا عالمی دن 31 مئی کو منایا جاتا ہے جس دن تمباکو نوشی کے اثرات پر اور اس کے نقصانات کے حوالے سے آگاہی پھیلائی جاتی ہے تمباکو نوشی کے انسانی صحت پر بہت زیادہ مضر اثرات رونما ہوتے ہیں ہیں جن میں پھیپھڑوں کا متاثر ہونا ، سانس کے مسائل ، بلڈ پریشر ، سرطان ،دانتوں کا زرد اور کمزور ہونا اور گینگرین شامل ہیں گینگرین ایک سنگین طبی حالت ہے جس میں بعض اوقات نوبت یہاں تک آ جاتی ہے کہ جان بچانے کے لیے صرف ٹانگ کاٹنے کا آپشن ہی موجود ہوتا ہے اس لیے بچپن میں تمباکو نوشی سے بچ کر ہم گینگرین سے بھی بچ سکتے ہیں-برطانیہ میں ایک تحقیق سے ثابت ہوا ہے کہ تمباکو میں سات ہزار کے قریب کیمیکلز ہوتے ہیں جن میں سے ستر کے قریب کینسر کا سبب بنتے ہیں جب ہم سانس لیتے ہیں تو یہ پھیپھڑوں کے ذریعے خون میں شامل ہو جاتے ہیں اور پھر وہاں سے جسم کے دوسرے حصوں تک پہنچ جاتے ہیں اس وقت دنیا میں بیس فیصد بالغ افراد سگریٹ نوشی کی عادی ہیں جو کہ آنے والے سالوں میں کمی کی توقع کی جا رہی ہے محکمہ صحت کی جانب سے صرف سگریٹ کی ڈبیوں پر اتنا لکھ کر ذمہ داری ادا کی جا رہی ہے کہ خبردار ! تمباکو نوشی منہ کے کینسر کا سبب بنتی ہے اور تمباکو نوشی گینگرین کا سبب بنتی ہے اس کے علاوہ کوئی عملی اقدامات نہیں کیے جا رہے اس وقت سکول اور کالجوں میں سگریٹ کی فروخت سر عام ہو رہی ہے اور اس حوالے سے کوئی پوچھنے والا نہیں جبکہ سگریٹ کو تمام نشوں کی جڑ تصور کیا جاتا ہے اور اس کی روک تھام کے لیے کوئی خاطرخواہ اقدامات بھی نہیں کیے جا رہے اور اس کی حوصلہ شکنی کے لیے بھی کوئی اقدامات نہیں کیے جا رہے-ترقی یافتہ ممالک میں اس کو بطور لت کے طور پر دیکھا جاتا ہے اور اس کے علاج کے لیے حکومت کی طرف سے بھر پور مدد بھی کی جاتی ہے-اس وقت سگریٹ نوشی کی عادت کو ترک کرنے کے لیے تین طریقے مقبول ہیں جن میں سکن پیچز ، نکوٹین چیونگم اور انحیلر شامل ہیں سکن پیچز میں جلد پر ایک خاص قسم کے پیچز لگائے جاتے ہیں جن میں نکوٹین شامل ہوتی ہے اور اس طرح نکوٹین کی مقدار پوری کی جاتی ہے جبکہ چیونگم میں بھی نکوٹین شامل ہوتی ہے جو جسم میں جا کر حل ہو جاتی ہے اس کے بعد انحیلر کے ذریعے بھی جسم میں نکوٹین کی مقدار پوری کی جاتی ہے اس طرح ترقی یافتہ ممالک کوشش کر رہے ہیں کہ اس لت کو کسی طرح ختم کیا جا سکے -زیادہ تر لوگ شروع شروع میں اسے فیشن کے طور پر استعمال کرتے ہیں مگر آہستہ آہستہ اس کے عادی ہو جاتے ہیں اس عادت کو ترک کرنا بھی زیادہ مشکل نہیں مگر کمزور قوت ارادی کے حامل لوگوں کے لیے اسے ترک کرنا تقریباً ناممکن ہو جاتا ہے -اس وقت سگریٹ نوشی کے حوالے سے پاکستان میں قوانین موجود ہیں جیسا کہ ہسپتال کی حدود میں ، پبلک مقامات پر ، پبلک ٹرانسپورٹ پر اور تعلیمی اداروں کی حدود میں سگریٹ نوشی پر پابندی ہے مگر ان قوانین پر ہم نہ عمل کرنے کے لیے تیار ہیں اور نہ ہی عمل کروانے کے لیے تیار ہیں ان قوانین کی خلاف ورزی کرنے پر باقاعدہ سزا اور جرمانے ہیں اگر ان قانین پر عمل درآمد کرتے ہوتے ہوئے چند لوگوں کو سزا اور جرمانے ہوں تو یقیناً اس میں کافی حد تک کمی واقع ہو سکتی ہے-

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Drugs and Educational Institutions Written by Mohsin Riaz

Drugs and Educational Institutions Written by Mohsin Riaz
Twitter @mohsenwrites

Drug use has now spread across the country. It is impossible to stop it completely, but it can be controlled to some extent. In the beginning, to the extent of tasting it, it is only a short-term pleasure. But gradually it becomes a compulsion and in a way it becomes impossible to get rid of it. At present, it has become a drug hub in Pakistan’s schools and colleges. According to Shehryar Afridi, there are ninety schools in Islamabad. Nearly one percent of children are addicted to ice. This is a very serious situation because these figures are from the current minister – ice is an addiction that a person can use to wake up much later than the prescribed time. He may be stuck, but when he gets addicted, his condition is deplorable – there are regular networks of ice sellers in schools and colleges whose job is to surround new people with drugs.They have to get used to it and they are regularly paid for this work. In order to do this job well, they encourage the students to use it so that you can wake up easily for a long time. In this way you can get good grades by giving more time to your studies and in this way it traps the students in your net. In addition to this and many other kinds of drugs are easily available in the market now including cannabis, opium. , Alcohol and MDM, about which the government seems to be unable to take any action knowingly. A large number of students have become addicted to drugs and one of the main reasons for their addiction is failure in exams. The pressure of family members, unemployment, low job ratio and also the pressure of too much study and to reduce this pressure, they seek relief from intoxication. I spoke to one such student, Shahzeb Arif.There is a law student at Punjab University who started taking drugs due to a lot of pressure and he started to find peace in it – maybe drug addicts are unable to think that the result is very bad. Maybe they understand this but they can’t control themselves so that they can give it up but in reality the effects are very bad in which sometimes it leads to suicide. Wasim, a student of Quaid-e-Azam University. Abbas tried to commit suicide under the influence of drugs last year, but luck helped him and he survived, but not everyone has the same fate as Wasim. In addition to the disadvantages, there are many other disadvantages, so students should avoid them as much as possible. In addition, the government should enact laws to curb the supply of drugs in educational institutions.Stop – According to current statistics, there are about 4 million drug addicts in Pakistan at present and there are a large number of students in them. Rehabilitation centers should be set up for these people where they undergo rehabilitation. To become an honorable citizen

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Human Trafficking by Mohsin Riaz

Human Trafficking Written by Mohsin Riaz
Twitter @mohsenwrites

Human trafficking is on the rise in some districts of Punjab, including Gujrat, Gujranwala, Mandi Bahauddin and Jhelum. Citizens of Pakistan often wish to migrate to a prosperous country where they cross the border illegally – Pakistan has seen a craze for illegal border crossings, especially in rural areas. Agents seduce people into believing that you are being sent abroad, where you can live a comfortable life, while these naive people have no idea what the situation will be like. The way to Iran is easy because most people are admitted to Iran in the form of pilgrims, then a difficult test begins because from thereLegally you have to cross the Turkish border and obviously there is a lot of strictness at the border. Most of them are caught while crossing the border but some are lucky enough to cross. The test does not end here but after crossing the border. Also if you are caught near the border you are sent back to Iran and if you have reached Turkey then you are safe and you are sent by water in a boat to Greece and then from Greece to Italy and There is a clear possibility of a small boat sinking in the sea. If you escape from here, then you will reach Italy. In this regard, I spoke to Adnan Gondal of Mandi Bahauddin and he said that in the beginning it was all It seemed easy but when we reached Iran then the difficult period started because four attempts were made to cross the border but each time failed because the border was very tight in those days.We managed to cross but got into a new predicament. The Kurds caught us and started demanding money. After taking everything we had, they asked the servant to ask for two thousand dollars from the house. Only he will be released. After a few days, their attitude changed and they started brutally torturing us, after which we were forced to call home for two thousand dollars and thus they gave us a wounded soldier. Leaving the check post in such a state that we had only one paint on our body, then our journey back to Pakistan was easy – for me it was a hair-raising event – such that the events are heard every day that The migrant boat capsized and the victims are mostly Pakistanis – I urge all young people who are determined to go to Europe not to be fooled by these agents because they To youThey don’t care about security, they just want the money they are getting – the government should also set up skill training institutes for the youth so that they can live in their own country instead of going abroad at the risk of their lives. Live the way you are – the government should also take action against the agent mafia that kills people.

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Last Century of Books Love by Mohsin Riaz

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From the time of evolution, the book has dealt with human beings, but its use was very limited at that time. At that time, it was engraved on pieces of rock, written on the bark of trees or on the leaves and also on the bones of animals. Taxes were preserved. Slowly paper was invented in the eighth century and books got new life. Handwriting was done on these papers with the help of ink and this facility was available only to kings and emperors and for these purposes they Ibn al-Haytham was a physicist at the time who was considered to be the heir to the books and was ahead of the Christians in every field. He proved Plato’s theory wrong and said that light does not come out of the eyes and fall on things, but light enters the eyes which makes things visible.Proved that Jabir ibn Hayyan was the first chemist to invent sulfuric acid and to make an acid that could melt gold.

Then came the era of strife, with Christians burning Muslim libraries in Baghdad and Spain or seizing books – books from the Cairo library were thrown into the river to blacken the river. There are many other events that led to the decline of the Muslims and the inheritance of Christian knowledge – the wheel of time turned once again and the printing press was invented. It changed the very idea of ​​the book and the printing press. After the invention of the book, every special and common person got access to the book – so that the people developed a taste for books and people started building their own libraries.

Then came the age of technology and people began to move away from books. Most people resorted to the Internet to save books for information and thus an era came to an end – now most people read books only on PDF. In order to save time as well as capital – but where is the spice that is hidden in the pages of books to be found in online reading – but even in this era, Faiz Festival and other such opportunities are being provided so that books Can be kept alive – there are almost no people in the library at the moment. In the present era, it has been a long time since any seminar was seen regarding the promotion of books, but recently a book was written by Hasnain Jamal. And apart from the unveiling ceremony, the way Hasnain Sahib went to different cities to meet the readers and promote the book was visible. Seeing all this, it seems that maybe this century books will continue to exist.Otherwise, in today’s age of machines, the majority of students may have read a book other than the syllabus – technology is also very important in today’s age, but the relationship with books should also be maintained. Can it really happen that Saud Usmani Sahib said
This smell of paper is addictive.
This is the last century of love for books.

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Sicilian Mafia by Mohsin Riaz

When Ola Olson, a professor of economics at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden, and her colleagues began researching the origins of the Cecilian Mafia, they saw the mysteries unfold in the statistics. 

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In the mid-19th century, Italy’s newly wealthy state conducted various surveys to find out the crime situation at the local level in Sicily. One-third of the island’s cities have been plagued by reports of criminal activity.

But why are criminal gangs in some places and not elsewhere? Unlike other places where the crime rate was high, economists began to look at the commonalities in these areas, from industries to mining and various agricultural commodities.

“The only common denominator in these areas was the clusters of citrus fruits,” says Olson.

Lemon trees can only grow at a certain height and temperature, and most of the Mediterranean islands are not conducive to their production.

However, economists have come to the conclusion that there were criminal gangs in places where clusters of lemons could grow. What was the connection between this harmless fruit and the criminal gang?

The answer to this question is scurvy. 

Until the late 18th century, long-distance travelers used to get screwed. The disease caused fatigue, discomfort and bleeding gums.

On a more dangerous level, it could lead to a change of appearance and even death.

However, the doctors concluded that even a small amount of fresh fruit in the patient’s diet can make up for the lack of vitamin C.

In 1790, the Royal Army’s regular strategy was to provide lemon juice to all crew members on board. 

The demand for lemons increased overnight. A poor island in the lowlands of Italy was the most favorable place for its production.

Sicily was already growing some lemons for export (mostly used for perfumes and decorations) and had a very good environment for their production.

The health benefits associated with lemons and their storage capacity meant a lot of wealth for sour fruit farmers.

Unfortunately, it is very easy to steal lemons, and many farmers have found that year-round crops can be stolen by robbers in one dark night.

Soon they began to hire powerful locals to protect their crops.

Soon these thugs started offering protection to the lemon farmers whether they needed it or not. Thus the Cosa Nostra, the Mafia, was born. 

 Once it was too late to establish a link between the lemon crop and the Sicilian mafia, it became a permanent chapter in history.

However, in recent decades, researchers have pointed out a few similar lines that countries with vast resources of minerals, oils and even certain plants have fallen into disrepair and chaos after a sudden discovery.

This phenomenon is termed as ‘negative impact of resources’.

Andrew Harris of FedEx explains: ‘There are many different explanations for the negative effects of resources, and in fact it is a comprehensive term that includes many theories. I think most of these theories refer to the Dutch disease hypothesis.

“Initially, this phenomenon appears when the discovery of raw materials in a country suddenly increases the value of its rupee,” he said.

“This increase occurs when sellers of goods want to pay in the local amount they have to pay for themselves and thus increase the demand for the currency (which in turn increases its value). ‘

Thus, the country’s other exports become more expensive for overseas buyers and as a result the economy loses its competitive edge.

Although the exporter of goods earns well, the rest of the country becomes poorer.

Although the increase in poverty is devastating, the discovery of resources exacerbates existing problems and promotes violence.

Fedem recently conducted a study on the People’s Republic of Congo to analyze this phenomenon in more detail.

The Congo survey found that the prices of expensive commodities are closely linked to rising violence.

“Given the conflict death toll, our analysis shows that the trend of violence has increased during the period when prices of certain commodities were high or tending to rise.” Fedom focused on metals such as cobalt, colton and copper used in our electronics, TVs and electric car batteries.

The discovery of valuable resources does not in itself lead to violence and corruption. Professor Alyssa Papyrus, of the University of Rotterdam Erasmus, has been researching various aspects of the negative effects of resources for over 50 years.

They summarize the factors that turn an unexpected financial benefit into a crisis.


Famous Mafia Don Frank Coppola (Creative Commons)

“First you have to differentiate between concentrated sources and scattered resources,” he says. Concentrated sources are oil, minerals, or natural resources found in a single location that belong to a particular geographical location (such as Sicilian lemons that grow at a certain height).

Such resources will be in the hands of relatively small groups of people who will protect themselves or forcibly ‘protect’ them with the help of criminals.

Papyrus says the negative effects of resources are more devastating if the government in the country is relatively weak, the rule of law is loose and things can be easily smuggled or stockpiled.

Even if the economy is already relatively weak, the effects are severe. A key factor is the presence of different ethnic groups in the region, which could further fan the flames of animosity.

Why do we have to share the blessings of the natural resources on our land with different groups living in other parts of the country?

Professor Olson says that as far as Sicily is concerned, it has all these accessories. The first written mention of a member of the mafia appears in the 1860s.

At a time when the island was in turmoil, revolts against the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which ruled Sicily, were common and the rule of law was weak.

“In Sicily’s history, there has always been a long tradition of resistance against anyone who has ruled the island, and it has fostered a culture of taking matters into its own hands, rather than reporting criminals to the government.”

Like other resource-negative countries, Sicily has throughout its history been divided between different ethnic groups who have migrated to the island from different places.

There are many regions around the world where the sudden increase in demand for certain local natural resources has led to a violent wave of armed criminal gangs.

In all of Colombia, however, the demand for coca leaves, which are used in the manufacture of cocaine in some parts of the country, has led to decades of chaos.

Many of Afghanistan’s problems can be linked to opium exports. Even after the popularity of Avocado’s latest unconventional use of toast, organized criminal gangs have not been far behind in capturing the trade.

But in recent events of the negative impact of resources, perhaps the most devastating was in the northern and southern Congo regions of Kiev.

Mark Sheared, CEO of the charity World Vision UK, says the region is full of “precious minerals and metals, such as Colton, which is found in many electrical appliances, cassite, which is a key ingredient in fortifications, and wolframite, which is heavy.” Used in the manufacture of machines and gold.

Ideologically, it should have been the richest place in the world. However, Sherd explains, “The importance of these natural resources has given rise to a number of reformist groups that forcibly occupy and maintain these precious mineral resources.

As a result, not only the management and operation of these mineral deposits but also the production and distribution of these commodities is severely affected and these resources are misused.

Reliance on mineral resources has affected the lives of many locals due to food shortages and poverty, where children are forced to work in the mines for meager wages.

Then begins a series of exploitations where people living near the mines start relying on the same resources for their daily income instead of investing in activities that will benefit them in the long run.

Sherd explains that this means that local communities are unable to diversify their sources of income by relying more on natural resources.

Furthermore, fluctuations in global commodity prices adversely affect the people who depend on natural resources in these regions.

A sharp drop in commodity prices during the global epidemic meant a further increase in poverty in countries that make a living by selling raw materials.


Congolese workers work in cobalt and copper mines. These metals are used in electronics (AFP)

Professor Olson notes that those who promote violence in places such as North and South Kiev are often referred to as rebel groups. However, many economists are of the opinion that they should be called gangs because their main purpose is to raise money in exchange for resources.

Increasing demand for precious minerals or certain commodities does not always lead to violence and poverty. In fact, few countries that have benefited from such resources have been able to protect themselves from the negative effects of this phenomenon.

Why did the small country of Norway, for example, protect itself from chaos after the vast oil reserves discovered some distance from the sea in 1967, when countries like Venezuela or Nigeria destroyed themselves from the experiment? Why did Botswana, the world’s second-largest diamond exporter, protect itself from the ‘blood diamond’ violence that devastated many other sub-Saharan African countries?

Countries that were somewhat protected from the ill effects of resources were fortunate. Professor Wilson says Botswana was already on democratic lines before the diamond wealth was discovered.

The vast majority of Tswana people live here, so it was clearly a country of the same ethnic group. As a result, there was little prospect of how the treasures would be distributed.


An employee of De Beers inspects diamonds brought from Botswana. Botswana, unlike other sub-Saharan countries, did not face bloody looting in the diamond trade (AFP)

In addition to the pre-existing democracy and strong government, Professor Papyrus points out that countries like Norway had relatively strong and diverse economies before the discovery of oil.

This means that the Norwegians did not rely entirely on sudden oil revenues, but instead used it wisely as an investment. (Norway is currently one of the top countries in the world in terms of sovereign financial funds).

But what is the solution for countries whose resources have already been affected? In countries where the government is already weak and the rule of law is poor, what can be done to stop the growth of organized criminal gangs?

“Most literature will probably tell you that, like many other factors involved in developing economies, it is entirely dependent on institutions,” says Andrew Harris of FedEx. Only a high standard of government can understand the importance of land ownership rights (such as who owns the mine) and make it possible to implement it. The problem is that there is no easy way out for me.

However, there are institutions that try to solve this problem. The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, for example, was founded in 2003 with the goal of eliminating corruption and promoting transparency in natural resource-rich countries.

One of the main ways to do this is to ask the mining companies to publish the taxes they have paid to the local government. The government also prints what it receives.

The purpose of preventing politicians and officials from secretly sending money to foreign accounts is to tackle corruption. If people believe that all the money from the resources is going to the government’s own coffers, they can be more hopeful that its distribution will be fair.

This creates less prejudice among the groups and means we are now the driving force behind the violence.

In Congo, World Vision is taking direct action in the form of the Partnership Against Child Exploitation, which, according to Sherd, aims to strengthen children and local communities and raise awareness of their rights.

The partnership, along with other activities, aims to raise awareness in local communities to replace child labor with alternatives (such as education), to improve the law and policy framework, and to exercise caution in contracts before exporting goods. Is.

A few years ago I went on holiday to Sicily and spent the last moments of the night wandering on the balcony of a pizza hut eating the island’s famous pan pizza.

Surrounded by plastic tables, crowds of youngsters enjoyed pizzas and hot air balloons as they enjoyed the Iranians.

Suddenly the whole balcony smelled of snakes when an old man in a white robe came and sat down and began chewing words in a drunken manner.

I took one look at it and when I looked back, all the young men were gasping for breath.

Whether the man dressed in white was a member of a mafia or not, I will never know, but the fear of the environment was very clear.

It was a horrible experience to see such a domination of public consciousness by a criminal organization created by the increase in demand for lemons 200 years ago.

Today, other countries that suffer from the same negative effects of resources can only hope to avoid such a situation.

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Taliban as threat by Mohsin Riaz

MANY Pakistani TV outlets, both those seen as close to Pindi and neutral ones, have recently shown interviews of Afghan Taliban officials. It is being asked whether the media should interview a group accused of committing acts of terror and abuses against women and minorities.

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The Taliban are not on the US terrorist list. Many, including ex-US officials, say this is just to keep them engaged, as they meet terrorism definitions in deliberately killing civilians. Several Taliban officials have been on the UN terrorism list for long. Their abuses against women are well known, eg keeping them housebound unable to study or work. Such abuses are resurfacing now as they capture more territory. Against this is the fact that Afghanistan, global powers, Pakistan and the UN are talking to them on power sharing.

But some say the media must exhibit higher moral norms than politically driven states and still boycott the Taliban. In our case, there is also the moral dilemma for media that they are efforts on the part of some to present the Taliban as legitimate and “now mature” stakeholders who will serve our interests in Afghanistan. The media should not wittingly or unwittingly become a mouthpiece.

Others say the media has a duty to report events and perspectives to the public. Even Western media interviews insurgent groups which had engaged in terrorism and later entered peace negotiations, eg in Northern Ireland. Western media also repeatedly int­erviewed terrorists like Osama bin Laden who never become legitimate stakeholders.null

The media aims to serve the public interest. So how is public interest served by giving space to terrorists and/or human rights abusers? There is the blunt fact that such interviews get media groups wide viewership which some say falls within the rubric of public interest. But such interviews can serve the public interest in other ways too if they challenge and expose the gruesome acts of such groups. This involves first knowing the different roles media plays.

The first, most basic, role is reporting events neutrally. The second is analyses, ie reviewing the likely impact of major events. The final role is activism, which means not only analyses but also pushing preferred outcomes based on one’s values. Many media outlets and even individual journalists play all three roles. But good ones conscientiously and clearly differentiate and keep news reporting separate and neutral. TV talk shows are clearly not reporting platforms and focus largely on analyses. Many also play an activist role by challenging politicians and others performing badly. Thus, strong activism and not reporting or even analyses is the right mode for such interviews. In doing so, media will not compromise its neutral reporting on other platforms.

Interviews with such groups are not ordinary ones and media groups must develop written ethical protocols for them. The first ethical issue is that thousands of families in Pakistan and Afghanistan have lost close relatives to the two Taliban groups on both sides of the Durand Line. Media must acknowledge their suffering before starting the interview and explaining the rationale for doing it.

Secondly, it is important to not unwittingly help normalise such groups. So in flipping channels, if people frequently see politicians on one channel, social activists on the second and militant groups on the third being interviewed similarly, this may help in normalising them. The tone of the interview must be harsher. The interviewee must be grilled and confronted with evidence of recent abuses. If they remain unrepentant, this will expose them on TV and help build public pressure against embracing them officially.

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CSS and Depression by Mohsin Riaz

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If you decide that a fish can climb a tree or not, then of course you are wrong. In the same way, every child’s intelligence, habits and attitudes are different from each other. There will be injustice and there is no standard for this exam that if you pass it then you will succeed. Maybe if you pass the English exam one year then there is an option that you will fail next year. Be done So it is important that you learn some of the skills that you can use to live a better life in the future – life is beautiful and beautiful, if you fail, please do not waste it – one of them Not only do you end your life but your parents’ lives are ruined too. They have raised you so big that you can live a comfortable life and in old age their Be a support

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Forests are our Future by Mohsin Riaz

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Forests have become our most important need at the moment because the weather is changing so fast and dramatically that it is unpredictable. An example of this is the occurrence of unseasonal and above-average rainfall. A recent example of this is in China, where a series of heavy rains in recent days have led to flooding, which makes it difficult to estimate the financial loss, but at least 33 people have been killed. In addition, there are many islands whose shores are sinking due to rising water levels – there is no clear law on deforestation that causes millions of trees to be cut down every year. It is cut for the sake of acquisition or in the process of forming a housing society, the loss of which has to be borne by the entire country. Recently, millions of mango trees were massacred in Multan for the new phase of DHA Society.Gaya and mango trees grow and flourish after many decades but it takes a few hours to cut them down. Besides, societies are being formed on such lands where farming is done but the farmers are discouraged when they get a fair price. The mafia is forced to sell the land. For this, there should be regular legislation that no land or society or construction should be allowed on land where there are orchards or are being used for agriculture.Society or construction should not be allowed.Society or construction should not be allowed.

In addition, there is a lot of progress in technology and research at the moment. Dense forests can be grown in a very short time through Miwaki. By following this method, you first plant reeds that grow very fast and then Other types of trees are planted in such a way that dense forest is created in a few years. Following this method, a few small forests have been planted in Lahore and Karachi. The present government is quite serious about this. A planting campaign has also been launched, olive groves are being planted and existing trees are being grafted in order to earn as much as possible – and the main reason for the deforestation That is the negligence and complicity of the forest officers which is the reason for the theft of valuable timber from the forests. In this regard, the government should set a record on the basis of which checking should be done to prevent this.Let me tell you about the effects of trees on the weather. Every time you enter the University of the Punjab in the city of Lahore, the temperature is quite low. Because there are so many trees out there, it is our responsibility to plant as many trees as possible and attract others so that we can provide a better environment for future generations to live in. In addition, the melting of glaciers has accelerated over the past several years, mainly due to rising temperatures, which increase the risk of flooding, so we all have a responsibility to plant as many trees as possible. And should play its part in improving Gulshan.When we enter Punjab, the temperature is quite low. It is only because there are a lot of trees there. At present, it is our responsibility to plant as many trees as possible and attract others to it. So that we can provide a better environment for future generations to live in. In addition, the melting of glaciers has accelerated over the years, mainly due to rising temperatures and the risk of flooding. Therefore, we should all fulfill our responsibility by planting as many trees as possible and do our part in beautifying Gulshan.When we enter Punjab, the temperature is quite low. It is only because there are a lot of trees there. At present, it is our responsibility to plant as many trees as possible and attract others to it. So that we can provide a better environment for future generations to live in. In addition, the melting of glaciers has accelerated over the years, mainly due to rising temperatures and the risk of flooding. Therefore, we should all fulfill our responsibility by planting as many trees as possible and do our part in beautifying Gulshan.Provide an environment – In addition, the melting of glaciers has accelerated over the past several years, mainly due to rising temperatures, which pose a risk of flooding, so we all have a responsibility to do our part. While doing so, more and more trees should be planted and Gulshan should play its part in beautification.Provide an environment – In addition, the melting of glaciers has accelerated over the past several years, mainly due to rising temperatures, which pose a risk of flooding, so we all have a responsibility to do our part. While doing so, more and more trees should be planted and Gulshan should play its part in beautification.

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